Going 3D with Tableau

Even though they are not the type of visuals that first come to mind when you talk about business intelligence, if your background is in science or engineering like myself at some point in your career you probably did 3D charts. And by that I don’t mean 3D bar or pie charts. I mean scatter plots, contours, mesh surfaces… where 3rd dimension adds meaningful information.

If you wanted to do these types of charts in Tableau, how would you do them?

I thought it would be good to put together a few examples starting from the simplest and moving to more advanced visualizations. Let’s start with the scatter plot below.

Four clusters in a 3D scatter plot

Achieving this takes a background image (the cube image to emphasize the feeling of depth) and 3 simple calculated fields that re-project x,y,z coordinates to x_rotated and y_rotated fields. Wikipedia has a great summary if you’re curious where these formulas come from. You can use z_rotated field to set the size of the marks to give perspective effect to also to set the sort order of the marks so you get the z-order right. You can find this chart as a Tableau Public visualization HERE if you’d like to take a closer look or use it as an example for your own 3D scatter plots.

The example above shows rotating in 2 directions (dashboard exposes one control but you can download and open the sheet to see both options) but what if you wanted to be able to rotate in 3 different directions? I saved this for my next example as incremental change makes it easier to follow.

Caffeine Molecule (click to view Tableau Public viz)

Caffeine molecule example above uses a dual axis chart. One axis draws the atoms while the other draws the bonds between them.  It still relies purely on the background image, mark size and z-order to achieve the 3D look just like the previous example but  you will notice that, this time “size” has a multiplier to account for the size of the atom in addition to the distance in 3D space to represent the relative sizes of different atoms. Another thing you’ll notice is that now that you’re using dual axis, z-order doesn’t always work well since Tableau sorts within each axis independently so in this setup atoms are always drawn above bonds but each group is sorted within themselves. You can find the Tableau public viz HERE or by clicking on any of the screenshots.

You can extend this basic idea to do many other types of 3D views. For example a contour plot like the one below and go from 2D contours on the left to perspective view with 3 extremely simple calculated fields.

Contour Plot (click to view Tableau Public viz)

Or 3D meshes that let you play with different parameters and allow you to explore results of different equations.

3D Mesh in Tableau (click to view Tableau Public viz)

To look at waves and ripples…

3D Mesh in Tableau (click to view Tableau Public viz)

Or draw filled surfaces…

Filled surface

Or doing just some viz art like downloading radio telescope data to build the album cover of Joy Division’s Unknown Pleasures album in 3D in Tableau.

Joy Divison - Unknown Pleasures (click to view Tableau Public viz)

How about also drawing axis, grids and even labels and have them rotate with the visualization instead of using a static background image and just have the marks rotate?

3D scatter plot with axis in Tableau (click to view Tableau Public viz)

Since you’re custom drawing these objects, you will need to have data points for axis extents, grid cell coordinates etc. I did this using Custom SQL. You can find data used in all example workbooks HERE as well as the SQL used. But easiest way to understand how it works is exploring the visualization. Thanks to VizQL, you can simply drag the [Type] pill from color shelf to row shelf see the visualization broken into its pieces which will help you understand how lines (surfaces, grids etc.) are handled differently from points and how it is possible to turn on/off grid using a parameter.

Breakdown of components of the visualization (click to view Tableau Public viz)

Besides Custom SQL, there is very little change to go from static background image to dynamic axis. You will see there is a minor change only in the x_rotated field’s definition.

No 3D visualization post would be complete without an example that involves 3D glasses:)

To be honest  this post didn’t originally have one but as I was wrapping up the examples, I showed them to some co-workers. Apparently two Tableau developers (Steven Case and Jeff Booth) had put together a stereoscopic sphere example and they thought it would be a nice addition to this post and they were kind enough to share it with me.  Time to put on some anaglyph glasses…

Anaglyph Stereoscopic 3D Sphere in Tableau (click to view in Tableau Public)

In this post I tried to share some examples of how to create various types of useful 3D charts in Tableau. I hope you find it useful.

Hidden gems in Tableau 9.2

Tableau 9.2 has just been released. It is full of several exciting features like Mapbox integration and being able to move totals, new permission settings as well as new iPhone app, it is easy to miss some small but welcome improvements.

Here are a few little features that I am sure some of you will appreciate.

Filtering on discrete aggregates : Throwing that ATTR(State) or a discrete MIN(Date) on the filter shelf is not a problem anymore.

Putting more in your LOD dimensionality : Before 9.2, you wouldn’t be able to use Sets, Combined Fields and Bins as dimensionality in your LOD expressions. Now you can write that {fixed [Profit (bin)] : AVG([Sales])} calculation you always wanted:)

As usual, we are looking forward to your feedback on the new release!

Quick tip : Creating your own dashed line styles in Tableau

You may be writing a paper that will be published in black and white and color is not an option or you just like using different patterns. Whatever the reason might be sometimes you want to draw your line charts with dashed lines. The most common methods people use to do this in Tableau are 1) Using a dual axis chart 2) Using the Pages shelf. Both are very simple, but (2) returns much more pleasant results.

Last week, I was talking to a Tableau customer and what they asked for during the call was not achievable with either of these methods since they wanted to be able to use multiple dashed line styles in the same visualization and also display a legend for it. So I had to improvise:)

After the call I thought it would be good to put together an example and share it with everyone in case anybody else wants to do the same. You can get to the Tableau Public visualization by clicking HERE or the image below and download a copy of the workbook to take a closer look if you like. I also added the other two options I mentioned into the sample workbook.

Dashed lines in Tableau (click to see in Tableau Public)

So how does it work? Solution is simple but has to be applied with caution. The best way is to look at before/after results to make sure any sudden peaks or dips are not eliminated by adding dashed line effect. The trick is to insert NULLs in the right places to get the line effect you like. For example

IF INDEX()%5 <> 0 THEN
[Your Field Here]
END

In the example I published I used a densified axis to get a very smooth curve but it is not needed but with a smooth curve and dense set of points, the result looks much better.

If you’re doing curve fitting using R integration, you can achieve something similar inside your R script using

for (i in 1:6) result[seq(i, length(result), 24)]<-NA;

where assume result is the name of the vector you would be returning to Tableau. What this would do is to insert 6 consecutive rows of nulls into your result for every 24 rows.

Tableau Customer Conference 2015

Every year I keep asking myself. Could the conference get any better? And it does. This year, 10 thousand customers and 1 thousand Tableau employees got together for the data event of the year.

I flew to Las Vegas two days before the first day of the conference as I was part of the backstage crew and a backup speaker. After two days of rehearsing on site at the MGM Grand Arena where Manny Pacquiao and Floyd Mayweather “took stage” a few months earlier, we were ready for the big day.

Backstage the day before
The calm before the storm

Of course two days is nothing compared to the overall time spent preparing for the keynote. Even though each speaker spends roughly 10 minutes on stage, a speaker and his/her backup spend at least 100 hours looking for interesting datasets, writing the demo scripts and rehearsing them. But it is definitely worth it. A conference of this scale and “data rock stars” attending it deserve no less.

Keynote backstage
Keynote backstage

Overall, my favorite part of the keynote demos was the visual analysis section which covered the support for embedding visualizations in tooltips and connecting to spatial data files (shape files etc.) among many other smaller improvements but the biggest feature in the keynote for me was data integration (cross-database joins and unions). Since my teams work on the advanced analytics features such as clustering and multivariate outlier detection, I was very happy to see the positive reaction from the audience.

Once in a while my Photoshop skills come in handy. In addition to working on the features and co-authoring the demo, I also designed the Tableau 2075 conference announcement image that concluded the analytics section of the keynote.

Tableau Conference 2075, Kepler 452-b

One of the most exciting parts of the conference for me is the opportunity to talk to lots of Tableau users face-to-face. This year with Tableau Community Appreciation Party, it got even better. I got to meet with lots of fellow Tableau users I see and interact with on the forums and bloggers whose work I enjoy.

Analytics roundtable was very helpful in hearing detailed reactions to keynote demos and what the needs were in other similar areas. Based on these discussions, I compiled a list of topics to cover here on the blog in the next few months and was convinced that I need to join this thing called Twitter.

Delivering my session “Understanding Level of Detail Expressions” (and hearing Joe Mako’s comments on the content afterwards), being part of Matt Francis and Emily Kund’s podcast were other highlights of the event for me.  And of course, meeting (and partying with) Tableau Zen Masters was the best way I could imagine to wrap up the event. I am already looking forward to next year’s conference!

What does Tableau 9.1 mean for your LOD expressions?

Tableau 9.1 is out. You may not see much mention of this in the list of improvements/features in 9.1 but you will notice that some of your LOD calculations will run MUCH faster. As I mentioned in my LOD expression introductory blog post, Tableau 9.0 runs each LOD expression as a separate subquery. Hence as you add more LOD expressions to your sheets, you probably noticed some performance degredation.  In 9.1, Tableau will collapse the subqueries for LOD expressions that operate at the same dimensionality and filter context. Result is up to 24x performance improvement in our TPC-DS tests!

Chord diagrams and Radial trees in Tableau

Two awesome posts from Noah Salvaterra and Chris DeMartini.

First from Noah, showing how to build a chord diagram a.k.a radial network diagram in Tableau.

http://datablick.com/2015/08/27/diy-chord-diagrams-in-tableau-by-noah-salvaterra/

Chord Diagram in Tableau

This has been on my TODO list for a while along with dynamic arc diagrams.

And radial trees by Chris DeMartini http://datablick.com/2015/10/12/radial-trees-in-tableau-by-chris-demartini/

Radial Tree in Tableau

Lots of great network visualizations on Datablick lately including jump plots, trees, hive plots and Biofabric from Noah and Chris.

What’s new in Tableau 9.0? Part 2 – Level of Detail Expressions

Level of detail expressions extend Tableau’s calculation language by introducing the capability to define at what level aggregations should happen. It is a small syntax change but implications are HUGE!

I will focus on the technical details in this post with a few examples to clarify the concepts. Stay tuned for a series of posts on Tableau website from our Product Consultants which will cover a range of business questions you can answer using level of detail expressions with lots of example workbooks, perfect for some inspiration.

What is level of detail anyways?

In Tableau, the results for a calculation such as SUM([Sales]) depend on the context. The context is defined by the filters and level of detail. Dimensions on rows, columns, color, size, label, detail or path shelves define the level of detail for the sheet.

For example if [State] dimension is on Row shelf, SUM([Sales]) will give sum of all transactions for each [State]. If [Product Type] is also on one of the shelves I mentioned above then SUM([Sales]) will give sum of all transactions within each [State] for each [Product Type]. The more dimensions in your sheet or the more unique members each dimension contains, the more granular your results will be. Since each result as drawn as a mark in your visualization, the finer the level of detail for your sheet, the more marks you will have.

Below is an example using the Coffee Chain dataset. The image on the left has Product Type as the only dimension in the sheet while the one on the right also has Product, giving it finer granularity hence more marks.

Product type vs Product, coarser and finer level of detail respectively

Filters on the other hand change the context by reducing the number of data points used in the calculation e.g. remove a state by name or where profit is below zero or that are not in TOP 5 etc. Using table calculations as filters is an exception to this however since they just hide marks without changing the data over which the calculations operate.

Level of Detail Expressions

Level of detail expressions allow you to specify the context for your calculations. For example the following expression

{fixed [State] : SUM([Sales])}

will always calculate sum of sales per state regardless of sheet’s level of detail. It also ignores the filters in effect except context filters, data source and extract filters.

Tableau has had several mechanisms to calculate at a coarser level of detail than the sheet or perform multiple levels of aggregation for many releases. Reference lines, totals and table calculations have been commonly used methods for these tasks which worked very well in some cases but not others. What level of detail expressions bring to the table is the ability to use the results mixed with row level values, push the mixed and multi-level aggregate calculations to the database (as opposed to local calculations with other methods) and use results as dimensions, for table calculation addressing/partitioning, in actions or bin them.

Level of detail expressions have the following structure

{keyword [dimension1],[dimension2]… : Aggregate expression}

The portion highlighted in blue is the dimensionality expression which consists of 0 or more dimensions. If there is more than one dimension, they must be separated with commas. Aggregate expression does not necessarily have to be a simple aggregation e.g. SUM([Sales]) you can insert other calculations here, even wrap an IF block inside a level of detail expression.

There are 3 different keywords

Fixed : Limits the level of detail of the aggregate expression to only the dimensions listed in the dimensionality expression. I will cover the interaction with filters towards the end of this post.
Include : Defines the level of detail for the aggregate expression by combining the dimensions listed in the dimensionality expression with dimensions in the sheet. It is great when you want to calculate at a fine level of detail in the database then re-aggregate and show at a coarser level of detail in your visualization and/or when you want your calculation’s level of detail change when you drill down or add more dimensions to your Sheet.
Exclude : Defines the level of detail for the aggregate expression by removing the dimensions listed in the dimensionality expression from dimensions in the sheet. It is great for ‘percent of total’ or ‘difference from overall average’ scenarios. Can be considered as the written/textual representation of features like Totals and Reference Lines.

Specifying no dimensions using fixed keyword e.g. {fixed : MIN([Order Date])} gives a single result for the entire table. Shorthand for {fixed : MIN([Order Date])} is {MIN([Order Date])}. This gives you the date your store made its first sale, when you earned that dollar bill you got framed:)

Since level of detail of the sheet determines the number of marks drawn in the visualization, when your calculation has a different level of detail, something needs to be done to reconcile the difference.

Here is what Tableau will do automatically for you.

If your calculation is of coarser level of detail, Tableau will replicate the results as needed  such that there is a value for each mark. In the example below

{fixed [Segment] : SUM([Sales])} is getting replicated for each Category, Segment.

Replication behavior when calculation has coarser level of detail than the sheet

This allows you to the following to calculate the difference between a Transaction Amount and the AVG Transaction Amount by that customer.

[Transaction Amount] – {fixed [Customer ID] : AVG([Transaction Amount])}

Note that this calculation mixes an aggregate with a row level value but doesn’t give you the error you’re used to seeing when you have aggregates and non-aggregates in the same calculation. Yet another benefit of using level of detail expressions!

If your calculation has finer level of detail, Tableau will aggregate the results as needed  such that there is only one value for each mark. In the example below

{fixed [Segment], [Category] : SUM([Sales])} is getting AVG’ed up to one value per segment (assume that the pill in the sheet has AVG as aggregation).

Aggregation behavior when calculation has finer level of detail than the sheet

With include keyword calculation will always either have same or finer level of detail than the sheet which requires aggregation to match sheet’s level of detail. For fixed it can be coarser or finer depending on the calculation and dimensions in the sheet. Since the need to aggregate or not depends on what dimensions are in sheet, it can change anytime. Having an aggregation defined is safe since if and when aggregation is needed, you already told Tableau how to do it. Because of all this, calculations with custom level of detail are always wrapped in an aggregate when in the sheet unless they’re used as dimensions. If no aggregation is happening (e.g. calculation has the same level of detail as the sheet or is coarser hence getting replicated instead) then changing the aggregation will not make any difference in the results. You will notice that when you drag a pill that is an exclude calculation, Tableau will default to ATTR (as opposed to SUM or AVG as you’re used to see with measures) to hint that what’s happening isn’t aggregation.

How does it work?

Level of detail expressions rely on database queries to calculate the results. If you look at your Tableau logs, you will notice them as sub-queries with inner joins and sometimes with cross joins. If your database doesn’t have a CROSS JOIN operator, Tableau will join without an ON/WHERE clause or use one that always returns true to get the same effect as long as your database supports it.

Cross-joins happen when there is no common dimension to join on. For example {MIN([Order Date])} is a single value repeated for every row hence there is no need for a join key.  It is a cross-join between the main table (that defines the sheet) and a one-row table (resulting from the calculation).

Of course this is not the only case. For example you can have a calculation such as {exclude [State]  : AVG([Sales])} inside a Sheet where [State] is the only dimension. This would also result in “blank” dimensionality again hence a cross-join query will be generated.

Level of Detail Expressions and Filters

There are several different kinds of filters in Tableau and they get executed in the following order from top to bottom.

Filters in Tableau

I colored Extract Filters and Table Calculation filters differently since former is only relevant if you’re creating a Tableau Extract from a data source and latter applies after the calculations are executed hence hides the marks without filtering out the underlying data used in calculations.

If you’re familiar with SQL, you can think of measure filters as HAVING clause in a query and dimension filters as the WHERE clause.

Fixed calculations happen before dimension filters, as a result unless you promote the pills in your filter shelf to “Context Filters” they will be ignored. There are many benefits to this. Imagine writing the following calculation

SUM([Sales]) / ATTR({SUM([[Sales])})

and having the dimension [State] in your Sheet. With this setup, this calculation will give you ratio of a State’s sales to total Sales. You can add a filter to your Sheet to hide some of the States but filter will only affect the numerator. Since denominator is fixed, it will it will still give the sum for all States. When you also consider taking advantage of this with filter actions in dashboards, you can imagine how powerful it can be.

Include and Exclude calculations happen after Dimension filters like any other (except fixed) measure in Tableau. So if you want filters to apply to your level of detail expression but don’t want to use Context Filters, you can rewrite your calculation using Exclude or Include keywords.

Level of Detail Expressions and Totals

There were several questions about this on Tableau forums and Beta e-mail alias so I decided to add a section to the post to cover this topic as well.

First, let’s talk about how Tableau computes Totals. In Tableau there are two kinds of totals. Totals (aka single-pass totals) and Visual Totals (aka two-pass totals). Former applies the current aggregation at a coarser level of detail than the Sheet and is the default setting when you turn on Totals. This option appears in the Total Using menu as “Automatic”.

Below is an example of single-pass Totals where you can see that subtotals in the first image on the left match AVG(Sales) per Category  (upper right), while Grand Total matches the AVG(Sales) for the entire table (in the lower right) i.e. when no dimensions are in the Sheet.

 Totals (aka single-pass totals)

If you wanted the Total rows to show the AVG of the rows above them e.g. the average of the values displayed for Bookcases, Chairs, Furnishings and Tables then you would need to use Visual (aka two-pass) totals. You can switch to visual totals by changing “Total Using” setting from “Automatic” to the desired aggregation to be used in second pass.

Note that values for single pass and two pass will be the same when what you’re doing is sum (“Total Using” setting) of sum (pill’s aggregation), max of max or min of min.

In the example below, Total Using is set to AVG. So subtotals show the AVG of SUM of sales per Sub-category within each Category. Green box shows the result while green line indicates the values that were averaged to get that result. Similarly the Grand Total line at the bottom (blue box) shows the AVG of all the rows marked with blue line. I renamed the total cells in this case so they are more descriptive of what’s happening.

Visual (aka two-pass) totals

Now that we clarified the basics, let’s move onto the main question of how totals and level of detail expressions play together.

Even though a single pass grand total applies the aggregation at table granularity i.e. as if no dimensions were in the table this does not affect what happens inside the curly braces.

For example if your visualization contains the dimension [Product Category] and your calculation is
AVG({include  [Customer Name]:SUM([Sales])})

LOD expression will still calculate at [Customer Name] , [Product Category] level for the grand total. Total row calculation only changes how the outer aggregate behaves (AVG in this case) so the results of the LOD calculation would get averaged up to [Product Category] for each mark in the Sheet but to table level (single value) for the grand total.

Single-pass Totals are not affected by the replication that is triggered by LOD expressions coarser than the Sheet. However please keep in mind that Visual (aka two-pass) totals do.

Understanding Nesting

You can nest several layers of level of detail calculations to answer even more elaborate business questions.  One thing to keep in mind though is the fact that context for a calculation is defined by its parent(s) as opposed to the sheet. For example :

{fixed [State] : AVG({include [Customer] : SUM([Sales])})}

it will have the same effect as writing

{fixed  [State] : AVG({fixed [State], [Customer] : SUM([Sales])})}

since nested calculation inherits the dimensionality from the outer calculation in the first case resulting in [State] + [Customer] = [State], [Customer]. Also since outer calculation is fixed, nested calculation will not be affected by the filters in the sheet.

And that’s not just it. Aggregation/replication behavior I explained earlier in this post also applies to nested calculations. Let’s walk through an example…

Assume you are trying to calculate the average customer spending in each State but you realize that customers travelling and spending small amounts in multiple states are skewing the results and instead of filtering those out, you decide to calculate the total spending for each Customer and use that value towards the State average. You could do this by writing the following calculation

{fixed [State], [Customer] : AVG({exclude [State] : SUM([Spending])})}

And set the pill’s aggregation to AVG when you drag it into your sheet.

In this example, nested calculation will give the SUM of [Sales] per [Customer]. However the outer aggregation has the dimensionality of State, Customer which is finer. This will result in replication of total sales per Customer for each State in which customer ever made a purchase.

Anatomy of a nested level of detail calculation

In this case since what happens between the two levels of calculations is replication, what aggregation you use here (AVG({exclude [State] : ….) doesn’t matter. The final step that averages customer totals to State level happens through the pill’s aggregation setting and the fact that State is the only dimension in your Sheet.

While this is a good example for explaining how nesting works there is even a simpler way of writing this calculation :

{fixed [Customer] : SUM([Spending])}

You just need to drag it into your sheet with the dimension State and set the pill’s aggregation to AVG.

This is because when Tableau generates this INNER JOIN, it does so between the dimensionality of the level of detail (LOD) expression and dimensionality that is the union of  the sheet and the LOD expression’s dimensionalities. In this case, the union of dimensionalities is Customer (from the calculation) + State (from the Sheet) which will result in the same replication behavior as in the nested case.

Working with disjoint LODs

When you think of all that’s happening to calculate the result, syntax to do it is amazingly simple.

Limitations

  • Calculations that involve level of detail expressions won’t be materialized in Tableau Extracts in  9.0.
  • Sets, combined-fields (use dimensions that make up the combined field individually by separating them with commas instead), parameters, table calculations cannot be used in the dimensionality expression in 9.0
  • Only field names can be used in dimensionality expression (e.g. an expression like MAX([Order Date]) or YEAR([Order Date]) or an IF statement cannot be used in the dimensionality expression). Note that you can use a calculated field that has the formula YEAR([Order Date]) and use that instead. If you use {exclude [Order Date] : SUM([Sales])} and have [Order Date] in your sheet, Tableau will recognize the date hierarchy and automatically exclude the dateparts from calculation’s level of detail as you drill down.
  • Table calculations and ATTR are not allowed in aggregate expression e.g. {fixed [County] : ATTR([State])} or {fixed [County] : INDEX()} are not supported
  • Dimensionality from one source with measure from another blended source can not be mixed in a level of detail calculation
  • All dimensions in the dimensionality expression should come from the same data source
  • Level of detail expressions that use exclude or include keywords can not be used as dimensions. They also can not be binned. This is because they have relative dimensionality. While this may appear like an arbitrary limitation, it makes them much more understandable. Consider the case where there are two include calculations in the Sheet that are used as dimensions. Calculation1 is {include x : min(i)}, Calculation2 is {include y : min(k)}. If there are no other dimensions in the Sheet, Calculation1 will behave like {fixed x, Calculation2 : min(i)} and Calculation2 will behave like {fixed y, Calculation1 : min(k)}. Circular reference! This is a solvable problem but at the expense of understandability. We chose ease of use and simplicity instead.
  • Level of detail calculations from secondary sources can not be used via data blending 2 in 9.0
  • In 9.0 results from Level of detail calculations are cached as a whole (not broken down per sub-query) so generating same sub-queries in different sheets/calculations won’t result in cache hits.

Data source support

In Tableau 9.0, level of detail expressions are not supported for the following data sources: Cubes, Big Query, DataStax, Informatica Data Services, Microsoft Jet, Splunk, Actian Vectorwise.

Following data sources has higher version requirements for level of detail calculations than minimum supported versions per Tableau technical specifications here :

Teradata 12+, Netezza 7+, HIVE 0.13+, Impala 1.2.2+

Rest of the data sources support level of detail calculations with the same minimum version requirements as listed in technical specs. The list also includes the new connections not yet listed in technical spec such as Apache Spark, IBM BigInsights and SPSS, R, SAS data files which adds up to a total of 36 connection types! Note that the new Excel and Text connectors are not Jet based so they have full level of detail calculation support as well.

Generic ODBC has limited support as cross-join syntax varies from database to database. What Tableau issues through generic ODBC may not be what’s supported by the database or database may not support cross-joins at all. So some scenarios may not work. It is advised that you use dedicated connection types where available for the best experience.

If you’re connecting through Tableau Data Server, it also has to be Tableau 9.0 or newer.

Performance
Level of detail expressions rely on database queries to calculate the results. Performance heavily depends on your database and size of the data, whether necessary indexes are in the database to be able to perform joins rapidly, complexity and level of nesting in your calculation. If your dataset is large and database is fast, level of detail expressions can give you vast performance improvements over Table Calculations since you can push finer detail calculations directly into the database instead of moving a large dataset over the wire into Tableau on your desktop.

You can make your calculations run more efficiently on the database, by avoiding unnecessary cross-joins. Also if you have large tables, you can get performance gains by using MIN instead of ATTR when you know replication will happen. For ATTR, Tableau queries for both MIN and MAX to see if it needs to show * or not. If you know your calculation will replicate, you already know MIN will be same as MAX. This way you can get the same results and shave-off a sub-query.

Other Notes

When using level of detail calculations as dimensions, be careful if your aggregation is returning floats since floating point arithmetic does not give results that are reliable for equality comparisons (JOINs check for equality) and this may result in unexpected results.

Conclusion

Congratulations! You made it to the end of the post!  I agree it was a long post but when you think about it, I think it is pretty cool that it was possible to fit most technical details in a single blog post. This would probably be a 3 volume book that comes in hardcover in the old world of business intelligence and calculations would only work on one platform. Being able to do this with 30+ different databases with such little visible change in the calculation language is very exciting.

Do you know what’s more impressive and excites me even more? All the cool things you will do with it… All the insights you will discover… Enjoy!